The need to create a precise calendar for Muslim religious observances and pinpoint the direction of Mecca for prayers energized the fields of maths and astronomy. To measure the position of celestial bodies, Muslims perfected a Greek invention, the handheld Astrolabe. Author of a pioneering 9th-century treatise on algebra, Persian mathematical astronomer Al-Khawrizmi introduced Hindu numerals (and zero), which came to be called Arabic numerals. The word “algorithm” comes from his name.
P.S: Algorithms attracts one’s mind to focus on a problem delicately and deeply.
In Elizabethan times and earlier they were mainly composed of the scented medicinal herbs like rosemary, thyme and rue which had disinfectant properties and were carried to offer some protection. The idea of using the language of flowers to send a secret message of love reached its peak around 1857 when Arthur Freeling published – “Flowers, Their Use and Beauty, Language and Sentiment”